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自制食品缺相关食品机械设备 安全隐患令人忧

新闻摘要: Self-made foods lack of related food machinery and equipment safety hazards cause concern

       从大家熟知的泡菜、腊肉、药酒,到豆浆、酸奶、饼干,再到时下流行的葡萄酒、水果酵素,时尚的自制食品走进人们的生活。但是,自制食品真的安全吗?我们首先从时下最流行的葡萄酒说起。  
  郭女士退休后就迷上了自制食品,除每天一杯自榨豆浆外,她还在去年酿了20斤葡萄酒和10斤水果酵素。郭女士对自酿的葡萄酒很是满意,春节时还特意将酒拿出来款待客人。然而,她并不知道,同是饮用自酿葡萄酒,有人却“喝”进了医院。  
  2008年11月,一直喜欢自酿葡萄酒的宁波张先生喝了1公斤多葡萄酒后,感觉头晕眼花,之后双眼视力变得模糊不清,医生检查他患了中毒性急性视神经炎,视力一落千丈,最低到0.1。  
  2013年,重庆一男士在喝了媳妇自酿的葡萄酒后上吐下泻,最后被送到医院救治。当时的诊断医生西南医院急救部副主任任小宝解释说,自酿葡萄酒有很多讲究,否则易带毒或菌群超标,“家庭酿制过程还没有除去甲醇和杂醇油的工艺。”  
  业内人士介绍,去甲醇在工业酿酒中是一种比较成熟的工艺,但私人酿酒普遍不具备这种工艺,也缺乏相应的检测手段和标准。云南大学生命科学学院副研究员王兴红曾指出,葡萄酒在发酵过程中酵母菌的主要代谢产物是乙醇,但同时也会产生甲醇。国外允许自酿葡萄酒,但是不允许用葡萄酒蒸馏提纯白兰地,就是因为如果不懂分馏,很容易造成有害物质浓缩。甲醇有强毒性,用于工业,一些“假白酒”之所以造成受害人失明、死亡,多源自酒中掺杂了甲醇成分。  
  酸奶、酵素等发酵类食品易细菌超标  
  说完葡萄酒,咱来说说辣妈、白领最爱的酸奶了。酸奶的确是很好的食品,老少皆宜,小编也很爱喝。但是,现在超市购买的酸奶绝大多数都有十几种的添加剂,一些消费者为了吃得更安心,选择自己自制酸奶。再加上现在酸奶机价格实惠,操作简单,还是很受消费者青睐的。但事实又真的如此,安全可靠么?  
  在百度,一位妈妈求助,她的宝宝每次喝了自制的酸奶后都拉肚子。江苏省营养学会公共营养师培训办公室主任颜晓东介绍,“自制酸奶能够根据不同人对甜度的要求进行调整。但制作过程要很细心,以免混入杂菌,否则不但影响酸奶口感,也会对人体造成影响。”颜晓东说,自制酸奶不宜用菌粉,因为即使菌粉本身没问题,在存放中也会因为保存不当而产生杂菌。“最好的引子是超市购买的新鲜酸奶,一次用完。如果用每次做成的酸奶做引子,家庭操作不可能保证完全无菌,会导致杂菌越来越多,对人体产生危害。”
  
  自制食品细菌易超标的还有深受健康人士青睐的“水果酵素”。去年,由于连续喝了半个月的自制饮料,烟台市民小邱出现了呕吐、恶心等中毒症状。小邱所饮用的饮料就是“水果酵素”,但由于发酵所产生的细菌并不一定都是益生菌,再加上卫生不达标,从而造成食物中毒。  
  对于水果酵素的功能,专家持怀疑态度。“水果酵素”的不确定性还要大一些。“水果酵素”其实是一个简单的发酵过程:在细菌的代谢中,糖被转化成酒、乳酸、醋酸等,并产生各种各样的酶。“非要把这些酶叫做‘水果酵素’也不是不可以,问题是在这种‘自制’的简易条件下,不能对细菌的种类进行选择,也无法对产生的酶进行分析。”想要自制水果酵素产生有助于减肥、美容、提高抵抗力的酶,并不是一件可以把控的事。  
  小编观点:设备跟不上自制热潮,还是正规食品企业好。  
  类似这样的例子还有很多,小编就不一一列举了。中国农业大学食品科学与营养工程学院副教授朱毅建议,家庭自制类似葡萄酒、自榨油、水果酵素等这类工业食品时,食材选择、加工过程、卫生把控等方面都可能存在潜在隐患,有的食品其实并不适合家庭自制。这样看来,消费者在选购食品时,去有保障的大商场或许比自制要安全的多。毕竟,正规的食品企业有较完善的食品生产和检测设备,能够保障食品安全。我想,一般家庭消费者也不会因为享受自制美食而花大价钱购买杀菌设备、酿酒设备吧。  

  目前,自制食品之所以还在流行,一方面是大家对食品安全问题的顾虑未消减,另一方面是消费者对自制食品存在的潜在危险认识不清。在小编看来,自制食品想达到正规食品企业生产的食品安全标准,是不太可能的,因为缺乏技术和设备的支持。未来,若食品机械企业专攻家用食品机械方面,针对性的研制仅供家庭使用的小型设备,解决上诉自制食品安全问题,或许能开辟出另一片市场。但是,这毕竟只是小编粗略的想法,食品企业以及上游食品机械生产设备企业,要想抓住市场,抓住消费者,还要在食品安全上下功夫,怎样为消费者提供更加有安全保障的食品生产工艺,是大家都要思考的问题。如果有一天,消费者不再担心商场买来的食品是否安全,那么自制也就不像现在那么被推崇,那么食品工业也将得到更好的发展。


From the well-known Kimchi, bacon, medicinal wine, to soy milk, yogurt, biscuits, to the current popular wine, fruit enzymes, fashion homemade food into people's lives. But is home-made food really safe? Let's start with the most popular wines of the day.
After retiring, MS Guo became obsessed with homemade foods. In addition to a glass of self-pressed soy milk a day, she made 20 pounds of wine and 10 pounds of fruit enzymes last year. Ms Guo is very satisfied with her own wine. She also deliberately takes out the wine to entertain the guests during the Spring Festival. However, she did not know that she was drinking her own wine, and some people "drank" into the hospital.
In November 2008, Ningbo Mr. Zhang, who had been fond of home-made wine, felt dizzy after drinking more than 1 kilogram of wine. After that, his eyesight became blurred. The doctor examined him suffering from toxic acute optic neuritis and his vision plummeted. 0.1.
In 2013, a man in Chongqing puffed up and down after drinking his wife's homemade wine and was finally taken to hospital for treatment. At that time, the diagnostic doctor, Renxiaobao, deputy director of the emergency department of the Southwest Hospital, explained that there was a lot of stress on self-brewing wine, otherwise it was prone to poisoning or excessive flora. "The process of home brewing has not yet removed methanol and miscellaneous alcohols. "
Industry insiders said that methanol removal is a relatively mature process in industrial winemaking, but private winemaking generally does not have this process, and there is a lack of corresponding detection methods and standards. Wangxinghong, associate researcher at the School of Life Sciences at Yunnan University, once pointed out that the main metabolite of yeast in wine during fermentation is ethanol, but it also produces methanol. Foreign wine is allowed to be brewed, but brandy is not allowed to be distilled from wine because it is easy to concentrate harmful substances if you do not understand fractionation. Methanol is highly toxic and used in industry. Some "fake liquor" causes the victim to lose sight and die, mostly due to methanol in the wine.
Fermentation foods such as Yoghurt and enzymes are susceptible to bacteria
After wine, let's talk about hot mom, white-collar favorite yogurt. Yogurt is indeed a very good food, both young and old, small editors also love to drink. However, the majority of yogurt purchased by supermarkets now has more than a dozen additives. Some consumers choose to make their own yogurt in order to eat more safely. Plus, the price of today's yogurt is affordable, and the operation is simple. It is still very popular with consumers. But it's true. Is it safe?
At Baidu, a mother asked for help. Her baby had diarrhea every time she drank homemade Yoghurt. "Self-made Yoghurt can be adjusted according to the sweetness requirements of different people," said Yanxiaodong, director of the training office of public nutritionists at the Jiangsu Nutrition Society. However, the production process must be very careful to avoid mixing with miscellaneous bacteria, otherwise it will not only affect the taste of yogurt, but also affect the human body. "Yanxiaodong said that self-made Yoghurt should not be used as a bacteria powder, because even if the bacteria powder itself is no problem, it will produce miscellaneous bacteria due to improper preservation. "The best introduction is fresh yogurt purchased by the supermarket and used up at once. If you use yogurt made each time as an introduction, home operations can not guarantee complete sterility, which will lead to more and more bacteria and cause harm to the human body. "
Homemade food bacteria are easy to exceed the "fruit enzyme" that is popular among healthy people. Last year, as a result of drinking home-made drinks for half a month in a row, Xiaoqiu, a citizen of Yantai, developed symptoms of vomiting, nausea and other poisoning. The beverage that Xiaoqiu drinks is "fruit enzyme", but because the bacteria produced by fermentation are not necessarily probiotics, coupled with poor hygiene, food poisoning is caused.
Experts are skeptical about the function of fruit enzymes. The "fruit enzyme" is even more uncertain. "Fruit enzyme" is actually a simple fermentation process: In the metabolism of bacteria, sugar is converted into wine, lactic acid, acetic acid, etc., and produces a variety of enzymes. "It is not impossible to call these enzymes 'fruit enzymes'. The problem is that under this simple condition of 'self-made', the species of bacteria can not be selected or the enzymes produced can not be analyzed. "It is not a matter of control to want to make homemade fruit enzymes to produce enzymes that help lose weight, beauty, and improve resistance.
A small editorial point of view: equipment can not keep up with the boom, or formal food companies are good.
There are many examples like this, and the small editors do not list them all. Zhuyi, associate professor of the School of Food Science and Nutrition at China Agricultural University, suggested that when home-made industrial foods such as wine, self-extracting oil, and fruit enzymes, there may be potential risks in the selection of ingredients, processing processes, and hygiene control. Some foods are actually not suitable for home cooking. In this way, it may be safer for consumers to go to a large and secure shopping mall than to make their own choices. After all, formal food companies have better food production and testing equipment to ensure food safety. I don't think the average home consumer would pay a lot for sterilization or winemaking equipment to enjoy home-made foods.
At present, the reason why home-made foods are still popular is that people's concerns about food safety have not subsided. On the other hand, consumers are unaware of the potential dangers of home-made foods. In the opinion of the small editor, it is unlikely that home-made foods will meet the food safety standards produced by formal food companies because of the lack of support from technology and equipment. In the future, if food machinery companies specialize in domestic food machinery, targeted development of small equipment for domestic use only, solving the problem of appellate home-made food safety may open up another market. But, after all, this is just a sketchy idea of how food companies and upstream food machinery and equipment companies can capture markets, capture consumers, and work on food safety to provide consumers with a more secure food production process. It's a question everyone has to think about. If the day comes when consumers stop worrying about the safety of food they buy at the mall, when self-control is less admired than it is today, the food industry will grow better.

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